Today, the heat pump, or PAC, is one of the most economical systems that can be used to heat a building. Here's everything you need to know about heat pumps: their advantages, how they work, the different types of pumps, and their prices.
Why choose a heat pump?
A heat pump draws up to 80% of its energy from its immediate environment (air, soil, or water). It is therefore a renewable and free energy source.
Ideally, a heat pump should be combined with low-temperature heating appliances (low-temperature radiators or underfloor heating). It is, therefore, best to choose this system in the case of a new building or a complete renovation.
However, there are different types of heat pumps, so it is always possible to find a solution to your situation.
How it works
A heat pump consists of four main components: the evaporator, compressor, condenser, and expansion valve. The heat pump draws heat energy from a heat source (air, ground, or water depending on the system). This heat will then pass through 4 stages:
- Evaporator: the heat captured is transmitted to a refrigerant liquid inside the evaporator. The temperature of this fluid rises and it is transformed into vapor (gas).
- Compressor: the gas is drawn into the compressor, where it is compressed under high pressure and reaches a temperature of 90°C.
- Condenser: In the condenser, the gas gives some of its heat to the building’s heating circuit. It then condenses and becomes liquid again.
- Expansion valve: A drop in pressure causes a drop in temperature in the refrigerant, which is now colder than the heat source, and the cycle starts again.
How heat pump work video, free download
Coefficient of performance (COP)
The performance of a heat pump is expressed by the coefficient of performance (COP). This is the ratio of the energy supplied by the pump (heat transferred to the building) to the electricity consumed to make this transfer.
For example, when a pump supplies 3 kWh for 1 kWh of electricity consumed, it is said to have a COP of 3. The higher this coefficient, the more efficient the heat pump.
Types of heat pumps
There are different heat pump systems, each with their own advantages and prices. A distinction is made between aerothermal systems, which draw their energy from the air, and geothermal systems, which draw their energy from the ground or the water table.
Geothermal systems are more efficient than aerothermal systems but require more work to install and are therefore more expensive. Your choice will therefore depend on your budget, the space you have available, and the output you need.
1. Air to water heat pump
Two units are connected, one outside and one inside the building. The outdoor unit draws in the surrounding air and can be placed on the ground, on a wall, or on a flat roof. The water is heated in the condenser and then sent to the radiators or underfloor heating.
This system is easy to install and costs much less than a geothermal system. However, its efficiency is lower because the outside air temperature is constantly changing. During particularly cold periods, this system can reach a COP of 2, which means that it will be less efficient and use more electricity.
2. Air to air heat pump
The air-to-air heat pump also draws its energy from the outside air, but it does not provide hot water, but rather hot air, which is forced through a network of vents.
It is the easiest and least expensive type of pump to install. It is reversible: the forced air can also be cold. However, as an aerothermal heat pump, this type of pump has lower efficiency and is less efficient in winter. There is no energy bonus for the air-to-air pump, as it consumes more electricity than other systems.
3. Geothermal heat pumps
In the case of a ground-water heat pump, the heat from the ground is used. To draw this energy, an underground collection system is installed in the garden (in the case of a house).
The horizontal collection is easier to implement but requires a large area. If there is not enough space, a vertical collector can be used. The efficiency will be even better, but the work will be much more expensive. Geothermal heat pumps are always very efficient, because the ground has a constant and positive temperature, even in winter.
4. Water-to-water heat pump
The water-to-water heat pump draws its energy from the groundwater. To do this, two vertical wells are drilled (a collection well and a discharge well). The groundwater always has a temperature of about 10°C, which makes the water-to-water pump a very efficient system, with a COP of 5.
This system has by far the highest possible efficiency of all heat pumps, but it is very expensive, as two wells have to be drilled.
5. Hybrid heat pump
This system combines an air-to-water heat pump and a gas-fired condensing boiler. When the outside temperature is low, the gas boiler takes over, allowing for a constant output throughout the year.
The hybrid heat pump is a very interesting solution for renovation when replacing an old gas boiler. This is because the system is easy to install, as it is compatible with the existing pipework.
What do heat pumps do?
Heat pumps can do a lot of things, here are the lists of the purpose:
Heat pumps costs
Heat pumps are a relatively inexpensive way to heat and cool your home. They also help to reduce demand on the electric grid. They can be found in a variety of different price ranges, but the higher the SEER rating, the more energy efficient the unit is. A 13 to 14 SEER heat pump will set you back around $1,000 to $2,100, while a high-efficiency model over 19 SEER can cost upwards of $4000.
The cost to install a heat pump can vary, depending on the size and capacity of your home. A two-ton heat pump will cost anywhere from $3,500 to $5,500, while a mid-sized 3.5-ton model will cost between $3,900 and $6,400. Installation costs are typically included in the cost.
The heat pump cost will depend on many factors, including the size of your home and the climate in your area. In general, larger homes will need a larger capacity than smaller homes. Heat pump capacity is measured in British Thermal Units (BTUs) per hour. Professional installers will take into account the climate of your area to determine the ideal heat pump size.
Air source heat pumps come in two main types: packaged and split systems. The most common split system is composed of an outdoor compressor and an indoor air handler. Both models have their benefits and disadvantages. Split systems tend to cost less, but you will need an indoor space to install them.
|Type||Unit average costs||Installing average costs||Running average costs (month)|
|Air source heat pump||$3,800 and $5,600||$11,500 and $19,975|
|Geothermal heat pump||$13,000 to $31,000|
|Pool heat pump||$3,500 to $11,000||$200 to $500|
|Heat pump dryer||$1000|
|Heat pump water heater||50-gallon water heater $1100|
Heat pump brands
There are a variety of heat pump brands on the market. Each brand offers a slightly different set of features and benefits. Some heat pumps are more expensive than others, while others are less expensive than their counterparts. Regardless of brand, you should consider the quality of the product and features. A high-quality heat pump should be able to keep your home at the desired temperature without the use of additional heating or cooling units.
One of the most popular heat pump brands is Trane. This company has been manufacturing HVAC equipment for more than a century and offers excellent performance, reliability, and energy efficiency. The company backs its product with a limited warranty of 20 years for parts and labor. Several of its heat pump models come with an extended warranty as well. There are three main series from Trane, including the Premier, iComfort, and Comfort.
In addition to Carrier, other major heat pump brands include Heil, AirQuest, and Day & Night. These brands make excellent air-source heat pumps. Some of these brands are also available for sale online. You should always look for reviews and ratings before making a final decision on which unit to buy.
Mitsubishi is another good brand to consider when shopping for a heat pump. This brand is known for offering innovative technology at a reasonable price. Their ductless heat pump products are highly efficient and minimize their environmental impact. Mitsubishi has expanded its operations to over 40 countries to serve a variety of climates. The company places great importance on providing excellent quality and fostering a sense of citizenship.
How Long Do Heat Pumps Last?
The average lifespan of a heat pump is around 15 years, but it can last longer or shorter. Performing regular maintenance and service can help extend the life of your heat pump. If you regularly service your heat pump, it can last up to two or three years longer. If you’re concerned about the lifespan of your heat pump, it’s best to have it serviced by a professional. Performing regular maintenance and servicing can extend its life and save you money.
The life of your heat pump depends on the quality and age of the component. Newer models generally last longer. A heat pump that was manufactured between five to eight years ago is more likely to have a longer lifespan. Make sure to have it installed by a professional, as improper installation may reduce its lifespan. It’s also essential to change the air filters, clean the device, and check that the defrost feature is working properly. Regular service and care will prolong your heat pump’s life by two to three years.
The type of climate you live in will also influence the lifespan of your heat pump. In cold climates, heat pumps run more than they do in warmer climates, which shortens their lifespan. In milder climates, they run less but are still used for heating and cooling. Increasing or decreasing the thermostat will help reduce your heat pump’s usage. You can also use the same thermostat in two different climates to minimize heat gain or loss.
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What Size Heat Pump Do I Need For My Home?
If you are unsure what size heat pump you need for your home, there are several factors to consider. A professional sizer can help you figure out exactly what you need. In most cases, a heat pump size should be calculated based on the square footage of your home. You can also calculate your heating load using manual J calculations. These are often more accurate than a calculator. In any case, you need to know exactly how much heat you need to keep your home comfortable.
Choosing the right size heat pump is crucial to your home’s comfort. Not only is it important to have adequate ventilation, but you also need to take the heat output into account. While there’s no simple formula to help you figure out the right size heat pump, you can consult an HVAC expert to find out exactly what you need. A professional heat pump installer will know how to size your unit based on these variables and will explain all of the details you need to consider.
Heat pump sizing is not easy and should be done with the help of a professional. If you have no idea about it, ask an HVAC contractor for a free quote. You can also consult heat pump sizing guides online. Make sure that you use a qualified and experienced HVAC contractor, who will explain all the variables and what type of heat pump you need. It’s best to consult a professional and ask for several quotes and read reviews online to be sure you’re getting the correct size.
Here is the table about the size of heat pump
What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Installing a Heat Pump in a Home?
There are advantages and disadvantages to installing a heat pump in a home. This type of heating system is much more energy efficient than traditional methods, though efficiency will depend on factors such as the number of windows in the home, the season, and the amount of insulation behind the walls. A heat pump will also increase the value of a home, making it a great investment for many reasons. The advantages and disadvantages of installing a heat pump in a home vary depending on a number of factors, including the climate, the number of rooms in the house, and how long the household plans to stay.
Air source heat pumps are not cheap, and their installation costs are often very high. Although they are much more affordable than traditional methods, you will likely be paying for the pump for years to come. In addition, they do not provide the same level of heat that some homeowners would expect. Instead, they are better suited to a home with radiators or underfloor heating. Furthermore, you’ll need to pay for extra installation fees if you want to use the system for larger rooms.
One disadvantage of heat pumps is that they are less efficient than conventional furnaces. This is because heat pumps run constantly during cold weather. They use more electricity to remove heat from the air, which lowers their efficiency. However, this disadvantage can be overcome by making modifications to the system. If you live in a particularly cold area, you should consider installing an extra indoor unit. This way, you can keep your home warmer, and your family will have warm air all year long.
|Lower running costs||High upfront cost|
|Minimal maintenance||Difficult to install|
|Reduced carbon emissions||Issues in cold weather|
|Heat pumps are safer|
|Can double up as air conditioners|
|A long lifespan|
Heat pump VS
Heat pump vs gas boiler
|gas boiler||heat pump|
|Provides excellent thermal comfort High yield Space-saving, no fuel to store Quick and easy installation Quickly profitable Easy to use||Uses renewable energy More respectful of the environment because no emissions into the atmospherePossibility of refreshing its interior in summer thanks to the reversible versionAdapts to an existing installation|
|Produces CO2 emissions The price of gas is unstable Annual maintenance is mandatory||Variable performance and efficiency of the heat pump depending on the outside temperatureElectric backup is requiredRequires a garden for the outdoor unitNoise pollution on some modelsRequires fairly well insulated housing|