The heat pump (PAC) also called heat pump is a thermodynamic machine with renewable energy. The latter is attracting more and more French people, one in three households is heated by this ecological and economical system. The CAP does not lack advantages to encourage you to buy it. But before you start, you will need to make sure that this heating system is suitable for your home and that it is a profitable investment.
The different types of heat pump
A heat pump is an autonomous device consisting of an evaporator, a compressor generator, and a condenser. It uses refrigeration technology and electricity to heat and cool capital assets. You should know that there are many types of heat pumps. Their performance and profitability, therefore, vary according to the model:
The air/water heat pump:
The air/water heat pump captures the calories present outside and injects them into the heating circuit in order to heat the water which will then be distributed through the heating circuit (underfloor heating, water fan coil units, radiators ) and that of domestic hot water. The CAP consists of four elements:
- The evaporator which allows the transformation of the refrigerant from the liquid state into gas.
- The compressor, powered by an electric motor, increases the pressure and heat of the gas.
- The condenser allows the refrigerant to release heat to the heating water.
- The regulator decreases the pressure and the temperature of the gas.
The air/air heat pump:
The air/air heat pump is an aerothermal system that uses air as an energy source. It captures the heat with its outdoor unit and compresses it at a higher temperature in order to restore it inside to heat the asset. Theoretically, the air/air heat pump only produces heating, but there are reversible heat pumps that can also be used as air conditioners.
In order to better understand the heat pump system, here is how the circuit works:
- The refrigerant is sucked in and then compressed by the compressor. This raises the pressure and temperature of the fluid.
- The high-pressure steam changes from vapor to a liquid state in the condenser. While condensing, the fluid releases its heat into the part to be heated until it becomes a liquid.
- The liquid passes through the expansion valve which suddenly lowers the fluid pressure and partially vaporizes the liquid.
- The refrigerant in the evaporator changes from the liquid state to the vapor state by taking the energy contained in the outside air even if the temperature is low, then the fluid returns to the compressor.
The determining criteria of your CAP
Before investing and installing the heat pump, it is essential to reflect and take your time to facilitate the process, here are the determining criteria not to be overlooked;
The lifespan of a heat pump is very variable, it has an average lifespan of 15 to 20 years. However, several factors can impact its longevity and limit its operation. Lack of maintenance or poor location of your heat pump may reduce its performance.
The COP is the coefficient of performance, it is an indicator that effectively enables the performance of a heat pump to be analyzed. It is the ratio between the amount of energy produced and the amount of energy used. This coefficient is expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh). There are different types of COP; we cite :
- Global COP : calculated by integrating energy consumption for defrosting and taking into account energy losses through distribution.
- The Annual COP : the most important coefficient since it makes it possible to evaluate the annual performance, taking into account all the auxiliaries. It is also used to measure the quantities of energy consumed and supplied over a year.
- The Seasonal COP (SCOP) : takes into account climatic and outside temperature changes and is calculated throughout the heating season.
The outside temperature
The outside temperature plays a very important role in the operation of heat pumps. Its output becomes more profitable and efficient when it is not cold . Indeed, some models stop working below certain temperatures generally between -10° and -20°. This is why it is necessary to add another mode of heating.
The choice of installer is very important, it must necessarily be certified and experienced in order to guarantee compliant materials and a secure installation. This way, you will benefit from the optimal efficiency of your heat pump.
Your current heating system:
Before installing your heat pump, check that your current heating circuit is compatible with the new equipment. If you have an existing network (oil or gas), the heat pump can simply be installed. As the transmitters are adapted, it is only necessary to connect the hydraulic module to the existing heating circuit. On the other hand, if you have electric or wood heaters, the work to be done will be more important and an additional cost must be expected.
The insulation of a house is an ecological act as it reduces energy consumption. Before deciding to install a heat pump, it is imperative to carry out a thermal study by contacting an expert in order to know the heat losses. And if your house requires renovation, a thermal diagnosis will help you determine the priorities: insulate, ventilate, heat and make the right choice of heat pump in order to enjoy optimal performance.
The interest of making an energy balance by energy, QualiPAC certified
Doing an energy balance allows you to determine the energy consumption of your fixed asset, so you can better control it and reduce your bill. In order to make the diagnosis, it is best to call on a QualiPAC-certified professional. It is a quality label for the installation of heat pumps. You thus guarantee a balance sheet in accordance with the rules and quality work.
What is the cost of a heat pump?
In order to plan your budget and avoid surprises, here are the costs to plan for: purchase of the heat pump, installation and maintenance by a professional and annual cost of use. Indeed, the price of the heat pump depends on several factors; the COP, the surface of your accommodation, the type of heat pump….
We offer you approximate prices (for 2020) for a heat pump to heat an area of 120m². But it is imperative to know that nothing replaces the estimate of a professional, these prices are given as an indication: the average price of an air/air heat pump varies between 6,000 and 10,000 € and that of an air/water heat pump varies between 8,000 and 16,000 €.
What are the benefits?
Multiple are the benefits of a heat pump. We offer you a list that will encourage you to install it:
It is ecological (its source is renewable energy)
It allows you to increase the price of your property in the event of a sale .
It does not consume a lot of energy: for 1 kWh of electricity consumed, the heat pump restores 3 to 4 kWh of heat. Thus you will decrease the costs of electricity bills.
It has a long service life (up to 20 years).
You can obtain tax advantages for the installation of your heat pump.